• 1923

    Declaration of the Children’s Rights (the Children’s Charter), which became the charter of the International Save the Children Union (Eglantyne Jebb). The fundamental principles of child protection were summarised in five points.

  • 1924

    The League of Nations adopted this declaration, known as the Geneva Declaration, on 24 September: “Mankind owes the Child the best that it has to give”. The League of Nations recognised for the first time that children have specific rights..

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  • 1948

    The Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the United Nations, Article 25 of which states that “Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance”.

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  • 1950

    Adoption of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (CPHR), which also guaranteed the rights of minors by addressing "everyone".

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  • 1959

    On 20 November, the United Nations unanimously adopted the Declaration of Children’s Rights, comprising ten principles. For the first time, countries with diverse cultures recognised universal and fundamental principles for Children’s Rights. The Declaration is non-binding for the States. Since then, the United Nations has celebrated Universal Children's Day each year on 20 November.

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  • 1966

    The United Nations adopted two treaties: The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. The covenant on civil and political rights dated 19 December 1966 applies to minors and adults, although this convention also contains provisions specifically related to children, particularly child offenders: Article 6(5) prohibits the death penalty for persons below eighteen years of age; Article 10 imposes the segregation of juvenile offenders from adults and the provision of treatment in the penitentiary system that is appropriate to their age. It also enshrines the rights of children to specific protection and to their identity. This text is directly applicable, but its scope remains limited.

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